Degenerative
Myelopathy (DM) Risk in Dogs

Each dog carries 2 copies. These are the possible
combinations: N/N = Clear (2 copies of the Normal allele) If you breed Clear "N/N" to At Risk "C/C", 100% of the puppies will be Carriers "N/C"  the Clear "N/N" parent can only contribute an "N" and the At Risk "C/C" parent can only contribute a "C" so the puppies can only be "N/C" which is Carrier. It gets a little more complicated when you breed a Carrier. The possible combinations for a Clear "N/N" parent bred to a Carrier "N/C" parent are: Dam Sire Pup N / N + N / C = N / N N / N + N / C = N / N N / N + N / C = N / C N / N + N / C = N / C The following chart shows the probabilities of the offspring based on the
parents' genotypes. Bear in mind that Mother Nature doesn't necessarily
pay attention to the odds. **Note that breeding 2 "N/C" Carrier parents can produce
At Risk "C/C" puppies.
The above probability table also has the same odds for breeding Long Coats, Black Dogs and other genetic traits.
Black Coat Factor Long Coat Factor 
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